For example, when alkaline septic effluent mixes with groundwater, the increased pH allows rapid transport of viruses, especially under saturated flow conditions Scandura and Sobsey, Using data from over 17 pilot-scale studies, the U. Since inactivation and adsorption vary significantly by virus type, it is generally accepted that no single virus or surrogate can be used to describe the characteristics of all enteroviruses. Viruses range in size from 20 to nm, making them the smallest group of microorganisms. Full-scale data on the removal of enteric viruses using UF is limited. Each well was sampled two to four times over a ten month period.
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